1. References within the text
These are documented by author’s name and the date of the publication, plus a page number if you have included a direct quotation.
- Where the reference is a citation rather than a quotation (i.e. a summary reference to a general argument), this is all the information required, and should appear in this format: Bell (1992), in his study of the language of the news media,
asserts that… .
- Where you have quoted (or where your citation refers to a specific passage in a long work), you should include the page number/s, like this: According to Fowler (1993), ‘Each particular form of linguistic expression in a text – wording, syntactic option etc. – has its reason’ (4).
- Where the author’s name does not appear in the sentence, it should be included in the parenthetical reference: (Fowler 1993: 4), (Aldiss and Wingrove 1986: 33).
- Where the publication has more than two authors, you should write the list of authors in full for the first reference, e.g. (Adolphs, Brown, Carter, Crawford and Sahota 2004) and thereafter, may use ‘et al’, e.g. (Adophs et al 2004).
- Where you refer to more than one work by the same author and with the same date, label them – (1992a), etc – and be sure to include the same labels in your list of
- Where you refer to an e-book accessed via an e-book reader (e.g.: Kindle or Nook), include author surname/date, as usual. However, e-books do not always have page numbers. If page numbers are not available on e-book readers, use the chapter or section heading and/or paragraph number instead, to help indicate the location of a quoted section: e.g. Smith (2008, chapter 1, para 8) argues that ‘Men are much more likely….’.
2. List of References at the end
All your references must be documented in a References list at the end of the essay. This list must contain only texts you have mentioned in your essay. They should be arranged, in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname, according to the following relevant layouts (look carefully at the order of elements, punctuation and formatting such as italics):
Cameron, D. (2000). Good to Talk? London: Sage Publications.
A book by two authors
Mullany, L. and Stockwell, P. (2010). Introducing English Language: A Resource Book for Students. London: Routledge.
An edited volume
Gee, J. and Handford, M. (eds.) (2012). The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge.
A work published in more than one edition
Yule, G. (2006). The Study of Language (3rd edn.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
An article in a book
Machin, D. (2007). ‘Visual discourses of war: Multimodal analysis of photographs of the Iraq occupation’. In A. Hodges and C. Nilep (eds.) Discourse, War and Terrorism. London: John Benjamins, pp. 123-142.
An article in a journal
Stubbs, M. (2005). ‘Conrad in the computer: Examples of quantitative stylistic methods’, Language and Literature 14: 5-24.
[In this example, the journal issue is 14. Some, but not all journals also have volume numbers (e.g. volume 2). You would format such an example as 14(2): 5-24]
An electronic publication
Treadwell, James (2000). ‘The Legibility of Liber Amoris’. Romanticism On the Net 17. [Accessed 23 August 2000]
Note the inclusion of the date you read the article – because net resources may be often changed or relocated – as well as the date of the article itself.
An e-book (e.g. Kindle or Nook),
Smith, A. (2008). The Wealth of Nations [Kindle DX Version]. Available from: Amazon.com [Accessed 20 August 2014]
Smith, A. (2008). The Wealth of Nations [Adobe Digital Editions Version]. Available from: doi:10.1036/007142363X [Accessed 20 August 2014]
Remember to include the type of e-book reader you have, e.g. [Kindle DX Version] in square brackets, the book’s DOI (digital object identifier) or where you downloaded the e-book from (if there is no DOI), and the date accessed – in square brackets.
Never use footnotes
Use an endnote for any extraneous material you absolutely cannot leave out. Ideally, all your material should be relevant, and all relevant material should be included in the text of your essay.