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01/16/2020

And if you fail in the long road of research and testing, it is always a big error. It will bring you down a lot and will make you think twice about any further attempts to carry that research forward.The city of Austin, Texas has recently banned the sale and use of plastic grocery bags, despite a 2012 study which shows that plastic bags do not biodegrade. The decision comes against the backdrop of a study out of UCLA and California State Polytechnic University, Sacramento, that shows that plastic doesn’t biodegrade either.

And if you fail in the long road of research and testing, it is always a big error. It will bring you down a lot and will make you think twice about any further attempts to carry that research forward.The city of Austin, Texas has recently banned the sale and use of plastic grocery bags, despite a 2012 study which shows that plastic bags do not biodegrade. The decision comes against the backdrop of a study out of UCLA and California State Polytechnic University, Sacramento, that shows that plastic doesn’t biodegrade either.
The ban will take effect Monday, January 1st.
A 2013 study of thousands of grocery bags found that they decompose within 14 years. That study’s co-author, James Sargeson, said the results are “alarming and surprising.”
“It’s not just a concern for our health, but a concern for the planet at large,” said Steve Brown, executive officer of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals who has also testified before city council on the issue. “All the chemicals get washed into the oceans and the rivers and ultimately the food chain, and there’s not enough land or energy for our animals to go to the market and find grass for their next meal.” They said it only makes sense for the city to ban plastic bags when the bags are a major part of a chain grocery store. According to the AP, in San Francisco, plastic water bottles break down in under a year while water from a single-use plastic water bottle could take at least three years to break down. They also said that other cities have also implemented bans on plastic bags but did not include plastic bags in their policy because some of the plastic still remains in the ground. The ban could potentially prevent up to 30,000 tons of plastic bags from being made each year in Austin.
Sargeson said that it is also ironic considering that many of the bags found in Austin are made in China or Mexico, where the plastic bag ban applies.
The ban will include larger grocery retailers as well as some smaller chains.
Austin passed a law outlawing plastic bags two years ago and the city is the first in the nation to do so.
In Austin, plastic has started to disappear due to the city’s trash pickup program, which sends recyclable and biodegradable grocery bags to landfills instead of throwing them away. The ban will hopefully encourage more stores to keep those bags on store shelves.
Photo via AP.A team of astrophysicists, led by Professor Thomas Brown from the University of Southampton, has successfully measured the gravitational field of a black hole in the center of a galaxy in unprecedented detail. The results are published this week in the journal Nature.
Black holes form in collapsing stars, as their core collapses, the star’s outer layers collapse until the star is no more than 1,000 times the mass of the Sun, or about 6 million times the mass of the solar system. As this occurs, the star’s own gravity takes over, pulling in all surrounding matter until only the extremely dense core remains. The core is an incredibly dense state and contains the entire mass of the star but is so small compared to the rest of the star that it is just one atom thick. When the star runs out of fuel and collapses, the black hole starts to contract, shrinking by millions of miles per hour each second, eventually becoming invisible