College Application essay guideline?

College Application essay guideline?
I am a senior in High School, and as soon as I started school I get hit in the face with all these work, resume, transcript, essay, sat and all that. I am doing each of these work slowly through naviance, I am 80% done with my resume, I have all ready sent out letter recommendation to some teachers, I am looking at colleges, and thinking of the sat. I just don’t understand this essay thing and the common application.
My teacher goes on and on about use writing about our life but I don’t know what to write.
SO I was wondering if you could give me a guide line of what colleges like to hear for example
You might say I need 5 paragraphs
first paragraph talk about your family
second paragraph talk about your school
third paragraph talk about your grades
something like that. If I know what to write for each paragraph then I can finish this in a matter of 4 days, lol I made a 4 page paper on The American Dream the day before it was due and my teacher told me it was the best he ever read, and no I didn’t copy and past, most of them came from my head.
So Please help?

Your essay needs to answer the question asked in the essay prompt. On the Common App, you get to choose from five essay prompts:

1) Some students have a background or story that is so central to their identity that they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story.

2) Recount an incident or time when you experienced failure. How did it affect you, and what lessons did you learn?

3) Reflect on a time when you challenged a belief or idea. What prompted you to act? Would you make the same decision again?

4) Describe a place or environment where you are perfectly content. What do you do or experience there, and why is it meaningful to you?

5) Discuss an accomplishment or event, formal or informal, that marked your transition from childhood to adulthood within your culture, community, or family.

Just select which prompt you want to write about, and be sure your essay answers the question. Your essay must be between 250-650 words.