How to write a research paper on genetic engineering?
Despite the modern socio-technical progress, such problems still exist. In 1996, the first molecular factory founded the company “Genentech” ran in the form of a pharmaceutical company. The founder, the son of a berry, was inspired by the idea of crossing the genome for the sake of a business deal. Over the next 10 years, the company developed a technology for producing transgenic plants. Today, it can boast a clientele of thousands of clients.
Although many in the public and in the industry called it “late,” “incomplete” (in poor English) or “loanated” (in Italian). Describing the role of genetic engineering in God and Sky, B. Woodson wrote that, in the mid-1980s, “a company of B. Engen” created a whole line of genetically transformed plants with extraordinary resistance. The best genetic engineering isetic engineers. The scientists which worked in this field later became the first to obtain transgenic plants with sharply increased resistance to herbicides.
The history of genetic engineering of plants is usually counted from 1982, when genetically transformed plants first appeared. One of the most common methods of transformation is a technology based on processing of tissue with microparticles of gold (or other heavy metals) covered with a solution of DNA. All cultivated commercial varieties of plants are obtained mainly with the help of this method.
The modern arsenal of transformation methods is quite extensive and includes such approaches as the introduction of DNA into bare cells (protoplasts), electroporation of cells, microinjection of DNA into cells, virus-mediated infection, and so on.
It’s worth adding in a “Genetic engineering in agriculture” essay that the researchers went further. Since many plants are susceptible to attacks and eating by insects, GE scientists conducted an experiment with the long-known bacterium Bacillus-Thiringiensis which produces a protein. It turned out that it is very toxic for many kinds of insects, but at the same time, it is safe for mammals. The activated protein binds to receptors of insect’s midgut, which leads to pore formation and lysis of the cells of the intestinal epithelium.
The interaction of toxins with receptors is strictly specific, which complicates the selection of the combination toxin-insect. In nature, a large number of Bacillus-Thiringiensis strains have been found. Their toxins act only on certain types of insects. Such preparations have been used for decades to control insects in the fields.
So, you may emphasize in your argumentative research essay on genetic engineering that embedding the protein gene in the plant genome makes it possible to produce transgenic plants that are not eaten by insects. But this method required a lot of work in terms of selecting the necessary strains and creating genetic structures that give the greatest effect for different classes of insects. In addition to the specific behavior of insects, the incorporation of prokaryotic delta toxin genes into the plant genome did not result in a high level of expression, even under the control of strong eukaryotic promoters.
Presumably, this phenomenon arose due to the fact that bacterial genes contain significantly more adenine and thymine nucleotide bases than plant DNA. This problem was solved by creating modified genes. One of the natural genes was excised. Certain fragments preserving the domains encoding the active parts of the delta toxins were added. So, for example, with the help of such approaches, the potato resistant to the Colorado beetle was created.
Cloning of animals
Cloning, in the most general sense, means accurate reproducing of object any number of times. Creation of animals and plants with specified qualities has always been something very tempting, because it meant creation of organisms that are unique and necessary, resistant to diseases, climatic conditions. They may give the necessary amount of meat, milk, fruits, vegetables and other products.
It may be stressed in a genetic engineering research paper written by students that the use of cloning technology implies a unique opportunity to receive phenotypically and genetically identical organisms that can be used to solve various theoretical and applied problems facing biomedicine and agriculture, since the cell nucleus is replaced by the genetic information.
An analogy with a genetic engineering essay is the role of such molecules (in particular, dinitrophenol) as bovine somatotropin and follicle stimulating cell. This method has certain limitations, since it allows the cloning of only female individuals.
Recombinant DNA technology is based on the production of recombinant DNA probes. With their help, researchers study the expression of genes in tissues, the localization of genes in chromosomes, and identify genes that have related functions (for example, in humans and chicken).
The technology of recombinant DNA realized an unconventional “protein-gene” approach called “reverse genetics”. You may explain its essence and benefits in a short essay on genetic engineering.