How to write a research paper on genetic engineering?
Despite the modern commercial push towards the genetic engineering of plants, many fundamental questions remain unresolved. In this article, the first genetically modified plant is described. The explanation is that, despite the rapid progress of technology, such methods still have a long way to advance.
The history of genetic engineering of plants is usually counted from 1982, when genetically transformed plants first appeared. One of the most common methods of transformation is a technology based on processing of tissue with microparticles of gold (or other heavy metals) covered with a solution of DNA. All cultivated commercial varieties of plants are obtained mainly with the help of this method.
The modern arsenal of transformation methods is quite extensive and includes such approaches as the introduction of DNA into bare cells (protoplasts), electroporation of cells, microinjection of DNA into cells, virus-mediated infection, and so on.
It’s worth adding in a “Genetic engineering in agriculture” essay that the researchers went further. Since many plants are susceptible to attacks and eating by insects, GE scientists conducted an experiment with the long-known bacterium Bacillus-Thiringiensis which produces a protein. It turned out that it is very toxic for many kinds of insects, but at the same time, it is safe for mammals. The activated protein binds to receptors of insect’s midgut, which leads to pore formation and lysis of the cells of the intestinal epithelium.
The interaction of toxins with receptors is strictly specific, which complicates the selection of the combination toxin-insect. In nature, a large number of Bacillus-Thiringiensis strains have been found. Their toxins act only on certain types of insects. Such preparations have been used for decades to control insects in the fields.
So, you may emphasize in your argumentative research essay on genetic engineering that embedding the protein gene in the plant genome makes it possible to produce transgenic plants that are not eaten by insects. But this method required a lot of work in terms of selecting the necessary strains and creating genetic structures that give the greatest effect for different classes of insects. In addition to the specific behavior of insects, the incorporation of prokaryotic delta toxin genes into the plant genome did not result in a high level of expression, even under the control of strong eukaryotic promoters.
Presumably, this phenomenon arose due to the fact that bacterial genes contain significantly more adenine and thymine nucleotide bases than plant DNA. This problem was solved by creating modified genes. One of the natural genes was excised. Certain fragments preserving the domains encoding the active parts of the delta toxins were added. So, for example, with the help of such approaches, the potato resistant to the Colorado beetle was created.
Cloning of animals
Cloning, in the most general sense, means accurate reproducing of object any number of times. Creation of animals and plants with specified qualities has always been something very tempting, because it meant creation of organisms that are unique and necessary, resistant to diseases, climatic conditions. They may give the necessary amount of meat, milk, fruits, vegetables and other products.
It may be stressed in a genetic engineering research paper written by students that the use of cloning technology implies a unique opportunity to receive phenotypically and genetically identical organisms that can be used to solve various theoretical and applied problems facing biomedicine and agriculture, for example, production of animal insulin.
It is expected that in the future, a lot of transitional works will be written to allow the creation of clones that will be able to satisfy the needs of different patients.
According to the scientists, for example, such approaches called “embryo splitting” are due to the fact that, with the help of genetic engineering, it is possible to correct the bacterium capsids carrying the heavy amino acids. Such approaches require special attention, since the carrying cell is not able to synthesize complex proteins, and the gene containing the altered form of the protein is introduced into the cell.
So, it is quite possible that, in the future, a technology for producing somatotropin will be introduced into a rabbit zygote. The obtained substance will be used in the therapy of neurogenic diseases.
The technology based on the use of cell cultures called “ultra-object” (obtained from the cells of the intestinal epithelium) proved to be much more economical than the reaction of conventional fertilized embryos.
Cell cultures can be considered as an alternative to the late-stage nuclear fertilization method. While the nutrient-containing methods (e.g. blood cells) are still at the initial stage of development, internal organs are being created. The volume of blood ejected by the cell for one reduction (about 10 mg) was found. The potential of transplantation of the ov was found to give about 30 million offspring.