How to write a research paper on genetic engineering
Relevance of essay about genetic engineering is connected with the fact that the problems of biology and medicine dominate in the natural sciences of the last decades. The scientific knowledge is focused on the mystery of life, in particular, heredity and human variability. This determines the intensive development of genetics, a science that studies these properties of living systems.
New discoveries made in laboratories around the world concern the decoding of the human and other organisms’ genome, the knowledge of the most complex mechanisms for their regulation of genes. They determine the pace and direction of the socio-economic development of society, have a significant impact on philosophy, morality, law, religion and other spheres of culture, since they touch upon the problems of managing the nature of human and all life on Earth.
You may write in a genetic engineering essay introduction that, at the present time, this sphere is in the center of molecular genetics, with the help of which a purposeful change in the properties of organisms is carried out.
Genetic engineering is an area of molecular biology and genetics. It is aimed at creating genetic structures according to the previously prescribed plan, formation of organisms with a given interval of chromosome. Modern researches make a unique contribution to the study of the structural and functional organization of the genomes of various organisms. The methodology of genetic engineering is constantly being improved. More and more people use it in solving the most diverse problems of biological science.
The opportunities offered by this sphere to humanity (both in the field of fundamental science and in many other areas) are very large and often even revolutionary, which makes genetic engineering research paper topics extremely important. It becomes possible to carry out industrial mass production of the necessary proteins, to greatly facilitate the technological processes for obtaining fermentation products (enzymes and amino acids). In the future, GE can be used to improve plants and animals, as well as to treat hereditary diseases of human.
Thus, genetic engineering, being one of the main lines of scientific and technological progress, actively contributes to speeding up the solution of many problems concerning food, agriculture, energy and environment.
General characteristic for genetic engineering essay
Write in a genetic engineering definition essay that this term means the methods of obtaining recombinant DNA unifying sequences of any size, forming a genome of cellular DNA.
The technology of recombinant DNA (also called genetic engineering) is based on the chromosomes of cells of higher and lower microorganisms (prokaryotes, eukaryotes). Mention in a “Genetic engineering is a philosophy and science” essay that, owing to this direction, it became possible to treat hereditary diseases, to breed animals, various plant species.
Overview for a “Possibilities of genetic engineering” research paper
Born in the early 70’s, genetic engineering has made great strides. Its methods transform cells of bacteria, yeasts and mammals into “factories” for the large-scale production of any protein. This makes it possible to analyze in detail the structure and functions of proteins and to use them as medicaments.
Now E. coli has become a supplier of such important hormones as insulin and somatotropin. Previously, insulin was obtained from the pancreas cells of animals, so its cost was very high. To obtain 100 g of crystalline insulin, 800-1000 kg of the pancreas were required, and one cow’s pancreas weighs 200-250 grams. This made insulin expensive and unattainable for a wide range of diabetics.
In 1978, researchers from the company “Genentech” first received insulin in a specially designed E. coli strain. It was shown that it does not contain E. coli proteins, endotoxins and other impurities. It does not provoke side effects like animal insulin but does not differ from it in biological activity.
Somatotropin is a human growth hormone. The lack of this hormone leads to dwarfism. If to inject somatotropin in doses of 10 mg per kg of body weight three times a week, then after a year, the child suffering from its deficiency can grow 6 cm. Previously, somatotropin was obtained from cadaveric material (4-6 mg of somatotropin from one corpse in recalculation for the final pharmaceutical remedy). Thus, the available amounts of the hormone were limited only to 500-1000 kg of somatotropin from one corpse in recalculation for the final pharmaceutical remedy.
Mention in a genetic engineering history essay that, in 1980, “Genentech” developed a technology for producing somatotropin with the help of bacteria. The obtained substance was devoid of the listed drawbacks. In 1982, human growth hormone was obtained in the culture of E. coli and animal cells at the Pasteur Institute in France. Since 1984, industrial production of insulin has been started in the USSR.
Recombinant DNA technology is based on the production of highly specific DNA probes.