How to write an abstract for a dissertation?
This part will be read by at least 40 people, while whole paper is usually reviewed in detail by a maximum of 5 teachers. This means that special scrupulousness is needed here. So, what is a dissertation abstract? It is a brief summary of the project which has the following structure:
Introduction: a general description of the work with the justification of the novelty and relevance of the study, description of the author’s personal contribution to the research of the problem, formulation of the subject and object, objectives and goals of the dissertation.
Main part reveals the essence of the study: research approaches and methods, main stages of the work, applied methodology, structure and scope of the dissertation, findings. Any conclusions must be confirmed by objective, accurate data. Any theories should be proposed with the indication that these are only assumptions.
The last part consists of a bibliographic review of publications of the author. All indicated works should relate exclusively to the dissertation topic.
The style, presentation of information in the abstract should be of scientific nature. All formulations should be succinct, concise, clear and precise. The statement of the problem, the hypothesis, the conclusions – all this should be logical, concretized and objective. In addition, control the volume – information should be compressed: only the essence, nothing extra. The following techniques are often used to achieve brevity: terms repeated many times are replaced by abbreviations; complex sentences, awkward constructions be replaced by simpler formulations.
Focus on the requirements of the commission. On the official university website, download the dissertation abstract example written in your specialty and accepted by the professors, or ask the supervisor where you can find such a paper. Taking into account the characteristics of a successful sample, compile your own version.
The requirements for the content of the main part are established by the supervisor and the scientific council. As a rule, it consists of several chapters listed below.
A review of the literature begins immediately after the introduction. The author analyzes the sources of information on the selected topic. It is a detailed description of the subject and object of study, the degree of their cognition in the modern world. It is worth pushing off from the concepts of the subject and object and disclosing the topic on their basis. The commission will evaluate the applicant’s knowledge of these elements.
If the project is devoted to a course of philosophy, it is appropriate to mention in the dissertation chapter that, in addition to the standard concepts, ideas, and concepts, be presented in other sources.
A methodology chapter in which the user provides a description of the research process with the respect to which it is carried out, lists the equipment or computer programs used. This part can be divided into thematic points, separately describing each specific method or arranged by the general level of elaboration.
A system of modeling the research process with the appropriate statistics has been developed in many countries. The following points should be mentioned in a “How to control population?” essay:
The main components of the census are population (population, population without education and health, high birth rate due to the high mortality of the population. This parameter is used in the statistical part of the census.
In the electoral system, the distribution of votes is carried out on an equal basis, and the results of the elections are used in the allocation of votes.
The principle of indirect elections of the President of the United States is often criticized. The number of delegates to the Convention is very different from the results of the previous elections.
The popular vote is equal. All candidates have the same qualification and are treated equally.
The right to take part in politics is established in the constitution.
The situation is complicated by the fact that the number of citizens ready to vote is very different from the number of votes. In effect, this means the opposite of the principle of representative democracy.
The absence of any material on the topic is observed in the electoral system. States are deprived of the opportunity to elect their representatives.
The high level of participation of the population in political activities.
Unstable political situation in the United States.
Absence of any significant cultural traditions.
The absence of the media and free distribution of information.
Dependence of the population on the political system.
The lack of high quality education, science, culture.
Repression of civil society.
The lack of attachment to the social tradition of the United States.
The lack of trust in the system of political institutions.
Criticism of the authorities, hypocrisy in the US.