How to write in a research paper on nuclear energy that, in the future, it may be possible to replace the reaction of deuterium synthesis with the conversion of helium. Soon, the advantage of this method will be realized and this method will be used in all reactors.
When the necessary conditions for thermonuclear combustion are achieved, the result can be described as milestone in an essay on water pollution.
You may inform the reader in the essay on water pollution that future thermonuclear reactor will supposedly operate in the regime of successive micro explosions at a frequency of several hertz, and the energy released in the chamber will be removed by the coolant and used to generate electricity.
Over the last 10 years, great progress has been made in understanding the physical processes of the target occurring during its compression and the interaction with the surrounding environment. Moreover, modern multilayer targets have already been checked with the help of underground nuclear explosions which make it possible to provide the required power of radiation. Ignition and large positive release of thermonuclear energy have been obtained. Therefore, it may be stated in renewable energy sources essay that there is no doubt that this method can lead to success.
The main technical problem faced by researchers working in this field is the creation of an efficient impulse driver aimed to accelerate the shell. The required power can be obtained with the use lasers (which is done in modern experimental installations). But the efficiency of lasers is too small to count on positive energy release.
Currently, other drivers for inertial synthesis are being developed. Most of them are based on the use of ion and electron beams, the creation of X-rays using Z-pinches. Scientists in the United States have been working on the construction of National Ignition Facility designed to produce an ignition.
Another direction in controlled thermonuclear fusion which may be described in alternative energy sources research paper is reactors based on magnetic confinement. The magnetic field is used to isolate the hot deuterium-tritium plasma from contact with the inner surface of the capsule. Unlike inertial reactors, magnetic fusion reactors are stationary devices with relatively low volumetric energy release and large dimensions.
During 40 years of thermonuclear research, various systems for magnetic confinement have been proposed, among which the tokamak occupies a leading position. Another system for magnetic confinement of plasma is a stellarator. Large stellarators are currently being built in Japan and Germany.
In a tokamak, the hot plasma has the form of a torus and is kept from contact with the surface by means of a magnetic field generated both by external magnetic coils and by current flowing through the plasma itself. However, the instabilities limit the allowable plasma pressure at a level of several percent of the magnetic pressure, and, therefore, the magnetic field is several times higher than the level required for the equilibrium of the plasma.
To avoid the high energy consumption for maintaining the magnetic field, it must be created in the reactor by superconducting magnets. Such a technology is already at our disposal. One of the largest experimental tokamaks T-15 uses superconducting magnets to create magnetic fields.
The tokamak can operate in the regime of self-sustained thermonuclear combustion in which a high plasma temperature is ensured by its heating by alpha particles charged by reaction products. For this, it is necessary to have a retention time of energy in the plasma of not less than 5 s.
The long plasma lifetime in tokamaks and other stationary systems is achieved due to their size and, therefore, there are certain critical parameters of the reactor. Estimates show that a self-sustaining reaction in a tokamak is possible if the large radius of the plasma torus is 7-9 m. Under such conditions, the tokamak will have a total thermal power at the level of 1 GW. Surprisingly, this figure roughly coincides with the power of the minimum inertial fusion reactor.
Over the years, impressive progress has been made in understanding the physical phenomena responsible for plasma confinement and stability in tokamaks. Effective methods of heating and plasma diagnostics have been developed, which made it possible to study in the current modern tokamaks those plasma regimes that will be used in reactors.
Large experimental machines – JET (Europe), JT60-U (Japan), T-15 (Russia) and TFTR (USA) – were built in the early 1980s to study plasma confinement with thermonuclear parameters and obtain conditions under which plasma heating is comparable with a full release of thermonuclear power. This generation of tokamaks has practically fulfilled its tasks and has created all the conditions necessary for the next step – the construction of installations aimed at researching the ignition and already possessing all the features of a future reactor.
It is important to mention in essays on renewable energy that, at present, the creation of first experimental thermonuclear reactor ITER is being conducted.