How to write the research paper on child labour
It is important to know how to write a research paper on child labour. The topic is wide and interesting. You can write about the history of this problem, its causes and consequences, social problems faced by parents and children, causes and effects of child labour, challenges that may be solved. The problem of child labour is especially acute for children from the lower and middle classes. Their position in the social structure of society is established by the reaction of the masses to the changes in the market of labour, increased opportunity for the entry of children into the labour market.
The phenomenon may be recognized as a “natural” transition from the higher to the lower class. In the process of social mobility, the labour of the middle class is supplemented by the activities of lower classes in the creation of economies and social structures.
These changes are observed in the period from which the wages of the middle class grow. On the one hand, the growth in the wages of the middle class leads to a certain decrease in the number of unemployment, which in turn affects the level of unemployment, but on the other – this process is highly desired by the society, which seeks to grow the middle class.
A number of studies show that the middle class is a resilient and mostly growing population (2012-2018 data from the National Survey on Household Activities and the American Association of Workplaces and Indicators of the National Productivity Survey). Moreover, the productivity of the middle class is dynamically stable. The changes in the labor market are fairly small, but the basic terms of its existence are not changed.
Significant trends in the labour market are observed in the process of population growth. The decline in the birth rate, the decline in the number of people employed in agriculture, the increase in the unemployment rate may be not so significant in the future.
There are also tendencies for the middle class to increase in earnings, especially in urban and form a relatively high income inequality. In combination with the socio-cultural division of labor, the upper and middle classes are inclined to take on the role of the working apparatus.
In the process of economic stratification, the middle class acquires a role of a “national institution” which is partly independent of the ruling elite and the middle class in the traditional sense of the concept of its existence. Unlike the elite, the middle class is not a collectivity of individuals, it is instead a national institution.
The limitations of the middle class are manifested, in particular, in the participation of the vast majority of the population in the production of consumer goods and services. As a rule, the middle class invests funds in real estate and liquid assets.
In the cultural sphere, the middle class is very responsive to the changes in social processes. In each society and in the world, there are laws that establish the status of representatives of the middle class. In the theoretical sense, the middle class is the level of the social division of labor, it is the amount of income, opportunities and dependences of representatives of the middle class.
In the cultural sphere, the middle class is the custodian and distributor of values, norms, traditions, laws of society. Also, it is the source of cadres of officials and managers of different ranks – both for the state apparatus and for business. Self-regulation of civil society is based on the activity of representatives of the middle class too. This role is called the function of the administrative-executive regulator.
In order to identify the middle class, along with the size of incomes, their structure should be taken into account. The prevalence of some source of income in the household budget means a certain social status or place in the social hierarchy.
The following pattern can be traced in an income inequality research: the labor receipts dominate in the structure of the incomes of the middle class. Work activity determines the social status of representatives of this stratum. Unlike the elite groups, the share of income from property is lower, and, unlike poor groups, the share of social benefits is lower.
The influence of social belonging is manifested, in particular, in the different attitude of representatives of the middle class to certain types of activity, the conditions and content of labor. Participating in the social division of labor, representatives of the middle class use their professional and qualification potential based on a high level of education.
The structure of household expenditures also can play the important role as a criterion for the identification of various social groups, since there are laws linking income and consumption in the modern society. The structure of household spending is most sensitive to changes in the ratio of income to prices for specific goods.
It’s worth stating in wealth inequality essay that, in the broad sense, the middle class refers to 60% of the population. This group has the incomes above the poverty line but not belongs to the richest strata.