What is a concept of the American Dream. It means a universal, collective American dream, the idea of America as a “new Adam”. The culmination of the American Dream is the economy and culture of the new perfect, the highest stage in the development of a human civilization. The American Dream is directly related to the Roosevelt’s reforms which can serve as a worthy example for modern politics.
The reforms of the 1930s, like the entire Roosevelt period, did not lead to a fundamental change in the class structure of the United States. But part of the lower class, having consolidated its financial position in the 1930s and especially in a postwar period, came close to the border of the middle class. The percentage of the middle class in the United States increased.
Let’s consider the trends of economic inequality in the 1950-2000s. From the point of view of fundamental economic changes, this period can be described as the era of transition from an industrial to a postindustrial society. The material well-being of US residents has been seriously strengthened: GNP has quadrupled during this period, while the population has doubled.
The middle class reached 60% of the population. As for the distribution of increased material wealth between different economic classes, there were mixed and contradictory trends.
It should be emphasized in racial and gender income inequality essay that the post-industrial era was characterized by a sharp socio-political activation of previously humiliated social groups, for example. The peak of their activity occurred in the 60-70s of the XX century. The movements of black Americans and women were held under the slogan of spreading the equality of opportunities for these social groups.
Both black Americans and women have made great strides. Laws were adopted that equalized blacks with whites and women with men in various public spheres, including labor market and entrepreneurship. You also may focus on them writing the income inequality in education essay, because wide access to academic work has become more real at that time. As a result, positive developments in the material situation and the status positions of the two social groups were observed.
Due to the weakening of female discrimination in the labor market, an increase in their number among employed population took place. By the end of XX century, they accounted for almost half of the nation’s labor resources. In addition, the number of women in prestigious professional groups has increased. So, in 1960, the share of ladies in the managerial stratum of the employed population was 16%, in 1975 – 19%, in 1990 – 42%, in 2002 – 47%.
However, it should be written in poverty and inequality essay that the dynamics of balancing the wages was somewhat worse. By the beginning of the XXI century, the level of average female and male salaries was not equal. Although over the last 70 years of the XX century, the average female salary has grown from 56% to 73% in comparison with male income. At the same time, by the beginning of the 21st century, the wages of the youngest generations of women closely approached the male salaries and reached 93% of the level of the latter.
The dynamics of economic and status relations within another pair of social groups, white and black races, is contradictory. It has positive tendencies: during the period between the Second World War and the beginning of the 21st century, black Americans have made tangible progress in improving their economic status. From a legal viewpoint, discrimination against black citizens was essentially eliminated, which allowed them to improve their situation.
However, discrimination continued to persist in everyday life. The main reason is the deep racial prejudice in the minds of white Americans. Many of them still do not want to live near blacks, to study with them at schools, to work side by side. Considering quality sample cause and effect essay on income inequality, you may find the following thesis: the “silent” boycott largely explains why some important indicators of the economic imbalance of the two races have retained their significance in modern US history.
Along with black Americans, large ethnic groups include Asian Americans and Hispanics. At the beginning of the XXI century, 30 million Americans had Hispanic roots and 10 million – Asian. These groups mostly belong to immigrants who resettled to the US in the last 30 years.
At the present stage, the average level of income of Americans of Asian origin is significantly higher than the salaries of Americans with European roots. As for people from Latin America, their economic indicators (poverty level, average incomes of families and individuals) almost coincide with black Americans. For this reason, these two groups constitute the vast majority of the lower class in the United States.
The imbalance between generational groups has decreased. American retirees have consistently strengthened their economic positions since the 1930s. They became one of the safest age groups in America. The percentage of the poor among people of retirement age fell below 10%.