What is a criterion of similarity between people: in social and economic terms, equality means a proportion of the same number of items in the measure, whose correlation is a component of several variables. The following criteria are of the great importance: homogeneity in the population, equality of opportunities (the same opportunity in the social and economic sphere, the opportunity to get the same material resources as others, etc.), and equality of outcome (the same result achieved by all members of society, the possibility of achieving the same level of development, etc.).
That is, the similarity is equality of conditions, which implies equality of opportunities. To achieve it, for example, as a nation, government has to eliminate any factors that cause inequality, including racial, ethnic, political, economic, demographic, sociological, and genetic factors.
But there are factors that cause inequality also should be eliminated. In the spirit of social justice, the elimination of inequality means the abolition of the function of the exploitation, which turns into the principle of social order protection.
The following definition of equality is characteristic of all egalitarian societies which were created on the basis of self-determination (the right to life, liberty, security, adequate food, fair trial, effective citizenship, etc.) as well as any other societies and cultures. In the broad sense, equality means the end of all entitle, including life, liberty and security, the right to equal treatment in law and social responsibility, the right to adequate housing and other benefits.
So, you may clarify the social meaning of the idea of equality by an example of some European countries.
It is worthy of mention in American equality essay that, in Ecuador, the way of property differentiation is more important than the features which the locals apply for. The differentiation of property is instead determined by the balance of opportunities which the equality provides. So, it does not follow from the abolition of the requirement to provide a certain number of copies of the ration card. In practice, people even ration food, clothing and other basic commodities.
In the European sense, equality is a social comparison, the endowment of equal opportunities in the conditions of the absence of economic and cultural differences between the elements of the society. In the era of social democracy, it is a guarantee of the elimination of inequality.
Mention in the essay on economic and social equality that, in the framework of the Constitution, the privileges must be exercised only within the framework of the civil society. Freed individuals are able to enjoy their natural rights (the right to life, liberty, security, adequate food, fair trial, freedom of movement, etc.) which are directly related to the position at the bottom of the social ladder.
In Europe, the ideals of humanism were placed above material practice, and life success was determined by many parameters. America narrowed the idea of success to one component in a concrete, tangible form, and happiness was determined by the number of banknotes. The dream of happiness was embodied, as Tocqueville said, in the romance of figures which have an irresistible charm. The cult of wealth has become almost religious. It was a special form of idealism, the culmination of the boredom of a humanist in the image of a King Lear, the incarnation of a God, the Avenger Motive Company, the king of all the land, the strong king of the nation, the king of the free land, the god of the steadfast and beautiful people. We see a similar picture in the images of the ideal candidate, and our ideal candidate is not a client from the crowd, but a king in the role of the emperor. We see the unfiltered harmony of people on the earth, and this is the source of the highest national values, the harmony of social conditions. The United States is a society of great opportunities. We observe the progress of the group until the middle of the twentieth century. The Western experience should be included in the public consciousness of the younger generation. Then the West will be able to present itself as a role model for the future.
Mention the following positive factor in American ideals essay: the economy, becoming the main goal of US democracy, pulled people out of poverty which humiliated their dignity, created the material basis for a full-fledged life, and provided material comfort. Culture was a form of recreation, entertainment for free time. It helped to ensure well-being in the emotional sphere.
Religious circles criticized Malthus from the other point of view. The Church believed that any artificial restriction of fertility (contraception, abortion, sterilization, etc.) is the interference in the affairs of the Lord.
It’s worth mentioning in an essay on population problem that Malthus was constantly credited with views against which he was openly speaking. Intellectuals familiar with the works of scientist, for some reason, creatively reprocessed what they read. Here is the example.