What is a definition of poverty that is understood as a relative deprivation of a person’s ability to maintain an independent position, material security, adequate housing and other property); relative poverty is the state of being unable to cover everyday costs related to a small number of people. It also includes such factors as the lack of basic opportunities and choices in the field of economic, social and political choices that allow people to be paid without working hours, the lack of knowledge and skills, the lack of basic social protections, and social services. Because of the lack of choice, individuals and families often suffer from poverty.
Problem of population aging
Aging population argumentative essay topics are quite relevant today, because according to the UN, during 1994-2014, the number of people over 60 years has doubled. In 2014, the number of old people in the world exceeded the number of children under the age of five.
In some countries, for example, in France and Sweden, the first signs of a population aging have emerged in the last century. But never before the increase in the number of old people has occurred with such pace and scale as today.
Now, in 15 EU countries, above 15% of citizens are at the age of 65 years and higher. The youngest country is Ireland (11.5%), and the oldest one is Sweden (17.5%). However, during the coming decades, the gap will decrease. The elderly group will be supplemented by generations born during the last baby boom (1946-1964). Compared to Western European countries, the United States is a younger state: there are less than 13% of people over 65 years old.
The causes of population aging are ambiguous. On the one hand, this is the decline in the birth rate, which leads to a reduction in the number of children and young people, on the other – an increase in life expectancy. In 1996, the average life expectancy in the EU was 80 years for women and 74 years for men. Sweden had the highest indicator, Portugal – the lowest.
Here are the most important economic and social consequences of this trend which should be described in an aging population research paper:
It should be mentioned in an aging population opinion essay that this phenomenon influences the structure of material production, changes the range of goods and services in accordance with the needs of older clients. It is also necessary to change some technological operations, adapt machines and equipment to the age-specific characteristics of workers. Means of transport, opportunities, and ease of their use also should correspond to the requirements of older people.
A certain part of the elderly population can and wants to work. However, in a number of countries, there are laws that establish the age when a person must leave the workplace. In most states, such a border is 65 years old. But life does not always fit into the strict prescriptions of legislators. Therefore, in accordance with some pension systems, early retirement is encouraged.
On the one hand, there is a tendency for an earlier retirement, which in some countries leads to a certain decrease in pension payments. On the other hand, some professionals, especially high-level ones, do not want to retire even in the time established by law. In general, the share of employees older than 65 years reduces. This does not apply to farms where people work until old age. But the share of people employed in agriculture is small and continues to decrease.
A huge influx of women (often highly educated) into the labor market leads to the displacement of older men in some countries. The use of fundamentally new production technologies also displaces the older generation. The retraining of the elderly is considered unprofitable by the entrepreneurs: it is more expedient to invest in training of young, promising workers who have many years of labor life ahead of them.
The process of population aging is closely related to the evolution that the family institution undergoes now. As a result of major social, demographic and economic changes, the family is divided into generations and often cannot provide care for elderly relatives. The proportion of elderly people living with their children or relatives steadily declines.
Some experts claim that the family falls apart and there is even a danger of its complete disappearance as a public institution.