what is a persuasive essay and outline secondhand smoke?
persuasive essay on secondhand smoking outline and conclusion
This might help you.
————- The Largest study on Second Hand Smoke ever done by Enstrom
“Conclusions The results do not support a causal relation between environmental tobacco smoke and tobacco related mortality, although they do not rule out a small effect. The association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and coronary heart disease and lung cancer may be considerably weaker than generally believed.”…. “No significant associations were found for current or former exposure to environmental tobacco smoke before or after adjusting for seven confounders and before or after excluding participants with pre-existing disease. No significant associations were found during the shorter follow up periods of 1960-5, 1966-72, 1973-85, and 1973-98.”
“Enstrom has defended the accuracy of his study against what he terms ‘illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it.’”. (Wikipedia)
—— Court rules that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is NOT a Class A carcinogen
William Osteen (US District Judge) ruling against the EPA
*The ruling shows by scientific definition that ETS is not a Class A carcinogen
“There is evidence in the record supporting the accusation that EPA ‘cherry picked’ its data” … “EPA’s excluding nearly half of the available studies directly conflicts with EPA’s purported purpose for analyzing the epidemiological studies and conflicts with EPA’s Risk Assessment Guidelines” (p. 72)
“Group A classification in large part on a resulting relative risk of only 1.19, without adequately explaining why the Agency had required every other Group A carcinogen to exhibit a much higher relative risk, or why it had recently found relative risks of 2.6 and 3.0 insufficient to classify other agents in Group A. All of the 15 chemicals or mixtures previously classified by ‘EPA as Group A carcinogens have higher relative risks than ETS.”(p. 76)
IAQC (Indoor Air Quality Control) epidemiologist Dr. Kabat observed, “An association is generally considered weak if the odds ratio [relative risk] is under 3.0 and particularly when it is under 2.0, as is the case in the relationship of ETS and lung cancer.” E.L. Wynder & G.C. Kabat, Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer: A Critical Assessment, I.SAB.7.1 at 6 (JA ,216). (p. 76)
——– OSHA will NOT regulate something that’s NOT hazardous
“OSHA has no regulation that addresses tobacco smoke as a whole, 29 CFR 1910.1000 Air contaminants, limits employee exposure to several of the main chemical components found in tobacco smoke. In normal situations, exposures would not exceed these permissible exposure limits (PELs), and, as a matter of prosecutorial discretion, OSHA will not apply the General Duty Clause to ETS.”
CDC Study shows cigarette smoke is 25,000 times safer than OSHA air regulations
Gov study shows waitresses in smoke filled bars are exposed to only a 5th of what the EPA considers hazardous:
US Senate discusses health official’s inability to represent any REAL science
CDC Studies show “smoking bans” have not improved everyone’s health as claimed.
An Actual Study about health & Smoking Bans – The National Bureau of Economic Research
“Workplace bans are not associated with statistically significant short-term declines in mortality or hospital admissions for myocardial infarction or other diseases.”
“Conclusions: Our results indicate no association between childhood exposure to ETS and lung cancer risk. We did find weak evidence of a dose–response relationship between risk of lung cancer and exposure to spousal and workplace ETS. There was no detectable risk after cessation