What is also worth mentioning the activities of English and French philosophers: Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Diderot and others. They put forward a number of important thoughts that changed the idea of what the world should be like.
For example, the concept of civil society appeared. The division of powers into administrative, governmental, legislative and judicial was proposed by Montesquieu. And within the framework of these philosophical doctrines, a new understanding of human has emerged. So, this significant period should be mentioned in your freedom of speech and censorship essay.
In England, where a great compromise, the “glorious revolution” occurred in 1688, human rights were respected. But people are still not citizens in England. They are subjects of Her Majesty. They are very free but not absolutely because must recognize the authority of the Queen at least formally.
The Labor Party, one of the leading political forces in Britain, considers it necessary to eliminate the institution of the kingdom. But it deepened into an imperious machine so much that became a kind of guarantee against the appearance of some unconstitutional formations, for example, dictatorships.
The monarch is the supreme authority who sanctifies the constitutional system and protects it. Write in freedom of speech term paper that monarchy does not mean the restriction of human freedoms. It assumes a developed democratic system: an elected parliament, a government accountable to it and an independent court. However, formally all this is not brought to the end.
First government document about human rights
Most consistently, these issues were resolved in the United States of America and in France. During the French Revolution in 1789, the Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen was adopted. You may mention in censorship and freedom of speech essay that, of course, these rights were formulated earlier by an English philosopher Thomas Paine and some other activists. But Constitution of France was the first government document which prescribed them. The revolution of 1789 entailed a lot of costs. This is quite rightly written and said by many historians. But any country that seeks to be democratic should create own declaration of human rights and citizenship.
Somewhat later, amendments to the Constitution were adopted in the United States. The first of them stated that the Congress can’t interfere in the activities of the church and the press, can’t issue laws regulating the religion and the citizen’s opinion.
Several very important conclusions were made at that time. List the following achievements in the essay on the First Amendment freedom of speech: religious tolerance, the absence of state church and free activities of religious movements. Religion was not just separated. It appeared outside the state, just like the access to information. In this sense, free press became the most important postulate of American democracy and state development.
And if there are press restrictions, they turn into economic difficulties. The fact is that the press, like the church, can’t exist outside certain economic transactions. It is necessary to maintain the buildings of temples, conduct some kind of economic activity. All newspapers must sell their copies, buy paper and ink. In other words, these institutions are not only centers of religion or information sources but also economic agents. And in this sense their activity is regulated by economic legislation allowing to take some measures on the part of the state.
But these actions can’t concern the content of the press. In this sense, the American concept presupposes freedom of opinion. It is very important to understand it. Because when we talk about the press, we often consider it widely, as economic freedom of entrepreneurship. All this is right. But the main thing that should be taken into account when writing about the press, is the content of the press.
In this sense, the United States Constitution defines the press as an independent political institution. Under American law, it is impossible to judge a journalist for content – only for slander, interference with privacy, and other misdeeds that go beyond the framework of legitimate journalistic activities, but not for a point of view, not for an opinion. Indicate this important thought in your freedom of speech and political correctness essay.
Back to France
A new step in the concept of press freedom was made by the French who introduced the notion of abuse of press freedom in the same declaration that was described above. And this for the first time led to the creation of legislation in this area. Unfortunately, its further development was not very promising in France.
First, the freedom of the press went through the Jacobin dictatorship. Then the Thermidorians did a lot to destroy it. And finally, Napoleon Bonaparte came to power. As First Consul and then as Emperor, he virtually abolished the Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, introduced a very strict and rigid censorship, and equated “pen to bayonet”. He said that several journalists are no less dangerous than a regimented soldier, saw a means of managing opinions and people in journalism, considered the press as an instrument of power.