What is however, it is absolutely obvious that we have not yet fully understood ourselves. The present moment is not normal for our society. The middle class is not a institution of values. It is something like the caste of workers, castes, castes, pitting, so to speak. The lower class is a part of the proletariat. The middle class is a independent social subject of many social processes, in particular, financial.
In Europe, the ideals of humanism were placed above material practice, and life success was determined by many parameters. America narrowed the idea of success to one component in a concrete, tangible form, and happiness was determined by the number of banknotes. The idea of success was embodied, as Tocqueville said, in the romance of figures which have an irresistible charm. The cult of wealth has become almost religious. It was a special form of idealism, the basis of which was the belief in the flesh, the eternal, transcendental. Tocqueville described it as follows: there is something supernatural, mystical in the incredible ability of Americans to acquire.
Writing the American Dream paper, you can refer to the words of Scott Fitzgerald. He believed that the myths about the American Dream, the spectacular tragedy of American Dream, the material which failed to take the place of the dream, were created by the entire American society. If the population of the United States is rich, and the top of the social ladder is not a billionaire, then, presumably, the American Dream is not a myth. It is the logical culmination of the achievements of the American Dream.
In some respects, the American Dream is significantly, radically different from the European one. The first idea of American Dream is an American one, which, in the minds of the participants, was considered as a kind of return to that country which the author all so passionately and passionately called as a “country of dreams”. The very word “dream” in its interpretation means the “dream” of a person, the idea of what is happening in the world. In other words, the American Dream is a dream, the literal and tangible realization of what the author wanted to see, the result of his efforts.
Having won independence, the United States instantly faced the problem of income inequality. The upward vertical mobility of the population is observed: the share of the labor force employed in industry is lower than the share of agricultural products, natural resources and share of the consumer base in agriculture.
As Tocqueville wrote, the American Dream is almost dead, its spirit is far from the dead, because the possibilities of its further improvement are only now being realized. The top of the social ladder in the United States is not occupied by the ordinary people but by the wealthy. The major social movements occur both within the middle class and with participation of other elements of the social structure. Free channels of upward vertical mobility, clear prospects for social growth based on education and high culture should ensure a sufficient level of welfare for the middle class.
It also should be noted in essays on social inequality that, in addition to the stabilizing of the middle class, the middle class plays an important role in other social processes. In the sphere of economic relations, representatives of the middle class are the first to take part in the provision of public services, especially, access to the universities and to maintain public structures.
In the cultural sphere, the middle class is the custodian and distributor of values, norms, traditions, laws of society. Also, it is the source of cadres of officials and managers of different ranks – both for the state apparatus and for business. Self-regulation of civil society is based on the activity of representatives of the middle class too. This role is called the function of the administrative-executive regulator.
In order to identify the middle class, along with the size of incomes, their structure should be taken into account. The prevalence of some source of income in the household budget means a certain social status or place in the social hierarchy.
The following pattern can be traced in an income inequality research: the labor receipts dominate in the structure of the incomes of the middle class. Work activity determines the social status of representatives of this stratum. Unlike the elite groups, the share of income from property is lower, and, unlike poor groups, the share of social benefits is lower.
The influence of social belonging is manifested, in particular, in the different attitude of representatives of the middle class to certain types of activity, the conditions and content of labor. Participating in the social division of labor, representatives of the middle class use their professional and qualification potential based on a high level of education.
The structure of household expenditures also can play the important role as a criterion for the identification of various social groups, since there are laws linking income and consumption in the modern society. The structure of household spending is most sensitive to changes in the ratio of income to prices for specific goods.