What is one of the most significant factors of diversity and equality in social relations. This factor is called “equality of opportunities”. It means the equality of opportunities in relation to the wages of different groups regardless of their social status.
In the cultural sphere, the equality of opportunities is a euphem designation and the connectivity of different social groups, the operation of various programs for maintaining equality of opportunities. Equality of opportunities is a set of interrelated and coordinated actions aimed at ensuring the optimal level of the development of all citizens.
To make the points more specific, in the essay on economic and social equality, it is worth describing a few examples in the affirmative form:
The concept of equality of opportunities is useful to understand the nature of social and economic inequality in the United States. In the tradition of the Enlightenment, it was a kind of equality of opportunities in the distribution of which, in terms of both material and social characteristics, the workers have equal opportunities in all spheres of their social existence.
The structure of the household as one of the basic social groups is quite simple, and the basic social roles (the main role in the family) are performed by the husbands. In the modern system of relationships between spouses, the division of domestic work among husbands and wives takes place. Also, the division of labor between husband and wife takes place.
Strict gender equality (the husband and wife have equal distribution of household activities, business, educational, marriage, parenting, etc.) is maintained in the system of social norms over the last 40 years.
The degree of social security (the importance of collecting and distributing income tax from all sources, the funding of social insurance, etc.) is quite obvious. In the process of economic restructuring (the growth in the number of middle and lower class families, the purchase of goods and services, the increase in the number of single people, etc.), the social safety system is enhanced.
The main social groups are represented by the elite of the middle class (the upper stratum and the elite). Their activity is regulated by governmental regulation, supervision over the distribution of wealth and other property, and the function of the state is preserved.
The role of the middle class in the social process of justice is quite obvious: it is the largest social group which occupies the leading position in the social hierarchy in the absence of any external regulation, and therefore, serves as a stabilizer of social mobility.
The main social movements occur both within the middle class and with participation of other elements of the social structure. Free channels of upward vertical mobility, clear prospects for social growth based on education and high qualifications should ensure a sufficient level of welfare for the middle class.
It should be borne in mind that, in addition to the stabilizing of the middle class, the functioning of the middle class plays an important role in other social processes. In the sphere of economic relations, representatives of the middle class play a dominant role. They give an active role to the activities of the middle class in the sphere of economic activity, enable it to function as one of the most important institutions of public institutions.
In the cultural sphere, the middle class is the custodian and distributor of values, norms, traditions, laws of society. Also, it is the source of cadres of officials and managers of different ranks – both for the state apparatus and for business. Self-regulation of civil society is based on the activity of representatives of the middle class too. This role is called the function of the administrative-executive regulator.
In order to fight poverty, the middle class spends a significant part of its time on a daily basis. The circle of people is very narrow. All this takes a huge number of resources, energy and, most importantly, creates a socio-economic imbalance. The imbalance between the middle class and the poor is widened considerably, the situation of the poor often becomes hopeless, which has positive effects on living conditions and the environment.
There is a tendency for the growth of a gap in the wages of middle class members. In 1973-1974, the hourly wages declined by almost 20% for manufacturers. Weekly wages declined by 10% for the producers.
In 1976, the hourly wages declined by 15% for manufacturers. But still, with the exception of the low-skilled workers (who became less skilled).
Since 1987, the minimum wage has consistently been increasing. For example, in May 2013, it was 8 hours. The day before the expiration of the sentence, the above-mentioned average was reached. The previous day was recalled in respect of all working people.
The reasons for the rapid growth in the number of workers are similar. Whereas in 2009, the number of employed workers was 3.4 times higher than the number agricultural workers.