How does trauma cause a pneumothorax?
Pneumothorax may result when blunt force (such as a motor vehicle crash or fall) or a penetrating injury (such as a stab or gunshot wound) damages the lungs and/or airways. The damage allows air to leave the lung and collect between the lung and the wall of the chest.
How does blunt trauma cause a tension pneumothorax?
Blunt chest trauma causes lung tissue to rupture, resulting in air leakage from the lung into the pleural space. Increased pleural pressure prevents lung expansion during inspiration.
How do you manage a traumatic pneumothorax?
1. Management of a clinically significant traumatic pneumothorax or haemothorax typically requires pleural decompression by chest drain insertion. 2. Anatomical landmarks should be used to determine the site of incision for pleural decompression within the ‘triangle of safety’ to reduce risk of harm.
What is the difference between tension and traumatic pneumothorax?
Pneumothorax is when air collects in between the parietal and viscera pleurae resulting in lung collapse. It can happen secondary to trauma (traumatic pneumothorax). When mediastinal shifts accompany it, it is called a tension pneumothorax. This is a life-threatening emergency that needs urgent management.
When does a traumatic pneumothorax occur?
This condition develops when injured tissue forms a 1-way valve, allowing air to enter the pleural space and preventing the air from escaping naturally. This condition rapidly progresses to respiratory insufficiency, cardiovascular collapse, and ultimately death if, unrecognized and untreated.
What is the most common form of pneumothorax?
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is more common in men than in women. This condition occurs in 7.4 to 18 per 100,000 men each year and 1.2 to 6 per 100,000 women each year.
Which mechanism of injury produces the conditions for traumatic asphyxia?
The mechanism of injury in traumatic asphyxia is usually a crush by an object that compresses the chest or upper abdomen. It’s most commonly seen in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in which victims are ejected from a vehicle that subsequently rolls over their torso.