Meaning and functions of adverbs in the novel

“White Fang” by Jack London

Through this paper, we attempt to distinguish different forms and functions of the adverbs. In order to do this, we need to learn not only rules but its practical application in discourse. For this we took the novel “White Fang” by Jack London. Adverbs comprise a most heterogeneous group of words. They have many kinds of form, meaning and function. We observe different types of adverbs in this book.

g. The thing done thoroughly and with dispatch. [3, p. 147]

The grey cub’s eyes had not been open long, yet already he could see with steady clearness. [3, p. 63]

Adverbs vary in their structure and meaning. That’s why there are many different classifications of adverbs.

In accord with their word-building structure adverbs may be simple and derived.

We observe many simple and derived adverbs in the novel “White Fang”. This can be demonstrated by the following examples.

Simple adverbs:

E.g. After several experiences, White Fang was to be let alone. [3, p. 151]

Here and there he could see one curled up in the snow like a dog, taking the sleep that was now denied himself. [3, p. 31]

The typical adverbial affixes in affixal derivation are first and foremost, the basic and only productive adverbial suffix –ly. We can find many examples of such a type of adverbs in the book.

E.g. He bristled fiercely and looked ominously across the shin-bone at White Fang. [3, p. 140]

His mate looked at him anxiously. [3, p. 57]

This gave them the seeming of ghostly masques, undertakers in a spectral world at the funeral of some ghost. [3, p. 7]

He got out of bed carefully, so as not to disturb the sleep of his comrade, and threw more wood on the fire. [3, p. 12]

Small group of adverbs are formed by adding the derivational suffix wise to nouns.

E.g. Grey Beaver’s wrath was terrible; likewise was White Fang’s fright. [3, p. 111]

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Otherwise he ignored them. [3, p. 131]

She brushed her nose her paws, trying to dislodge the fiery darts, thrust it into the snow, and rubbed it against twigs and branches and all the time leaping about, ahead, sidewise, up and down, in a frenzy of pain and fright. [3, p. 61]

Then comes a smaller group of adverbs formed by the addition of the derivational suffix -ward(s) to a limited group of nouns.

E.g. Beauty Smith’s remaining leg left the ground, and his whole body seemed to lift into the air as he turned over backward and stuck the snow. [3, p. 187]

It soured upward with a swift rush, till it reached its topmost note. [3, p. 7]

He had not rushed forward after the manner of the dogs. [3, p. 212]

I came back to the bag afterward an’ got ‘m his fish. [3, p. 9 ]

We can also find some examples of adverbs formed by adding the less derivational suffix way(s).

E.g. He swung the club smartly, stopping the rush midway and smashing White Fang down upon the ground. [3, p. 167]

Well, Spanker’s troubles is over anyway. [3, p. 21]

Examples of adverbs formed by the characteristic adverbial prefix a- are the following:

E.g. “They yes’ swallowed ‘m alive.” [3, p. 13]

All that was left him to do was to keep his long rope taut and his flanks ahead of the teeth of his mates. [3, p. 123]

The men toiled without speech across the face of the frozen world. [3, p. 17]

“It’s no use, Mr Scott, you can’t break ‘m apart that way,” Matt said at last. [3, p. 188]

But there was life, abroad in the land and defiant. [3, p. 5]

They got out of his way when he became along. [3, p. 131]

So we can see that there are many derived adverbs in the novel “White Fang”, formed by means of different suffixes productive and non-productive and by adding prefix a-.

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We observe examples of compound adverbs which are formed of two stems.

There is a group of adverbs formed by combining the pro­nouns some, any, every and no with a limited number of nouns or pronominal adverbs.

E.g. It was to rear, somewhere in the snow expanse they had just traversed. [3, p.8]

I don’t feel right, somehow. [3, p.12]

He, on the other hand, being the fastest-footed, was afraid to venture anywhere. [3, p. 118]

But White Fang was here, there, and everywhere, always evading and eluding, and always leaping in and splashing with his fangs and leaping out again in time to escape punishment. [3, p. 173]

But also there are other compound adverbs:

E.g. Thereafter they spoke no more, though their ears were keen for the hunting-cries that continued to rise behind them. [3, p. 8]

So White Fang, in manner somewhat similar, lured Lip-lip into Kiche’s avenging jaws. [3, p. 107]

Furthermore, the sled was of some service, for it carried nearly two hundred pounds of outfit and food. [3, p. 127]

Whenever he ventured away from his mother, the bully was sure to appear, trailing at his heels, snarling at him, picking upon him, and watchful of an opportunity, when no man-animal was near, to spring upon him and force a fight. [3, p.106]

Among the adverbs we can distinguish such type of adverbs as composite phrasal adverbs which consist of two or more word-forms.

E.g. In short, Beauty Smith was a monstrosity, and the blame of it lay elsewhere. [3, p. 163]

 At first, the killing of the white men’s dogs had been a diversion. [3, p. 158]

He sat for a long while upon the sled. [3, p. 31]

And in the meanwhile, the she-wolf, the cause of it all, sat down contentedly on her haunches and watched. [3, p.45]

A special point of linguistic interest is presented by the development of “merged” or “separable” adverbs. The term “merged” is meant here to bring out the fact that such separable compounds are lexically and gram­matically indivisible and form a single idea.

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Considered in their structure, examples of such “separable” compounds may be classified as follows:

preposition + noun:

E.g. The other end of the stick, in turn, was made fast to a stake in the ground by means of a leather thong. [3, p. 18]

Once at the tree, he studied the surrounding forest in order to fell the tree in the direction of the most firewood. [3, p. 36]

b) noun + preposition + noun

One and all, from time to time, they felt his teeth; and to his credit, he gave more than he received. [3, p. 115]

Two by two, male and female, the wolves were deserting. [3, p. 45]

The men slept, breathing heavily, side by side, under the one covering.

[3, p. 12]

Cry after cry, and answering cries, were turning the silence into a bedlam. [3, p. 10]

He came out of a thicket and found himself face to face with the slow-witted bird. [3, p. 58]

preposition + substantivized adjective:

At last Grey Beaver withheld his hand. [3, p. 111]

The man waited in vain for them to go. [3, p. 35]

preposition + verbal noun

They remained in a circle about him and his fire, displaying an arrogance of possession that shook his courage born of the morning light. [3, p. 35]

preposition + numeral

At first this caused trouble for the other dogs. [3, p. 151]

For once White Fang did not make an immediate attack. [3, p. 179]

coordinative adverbs:

White Fang darted in and out unscathed, while Cherokee’s wounds increased. [3, p. 181]

g) preposition + pronoun

His reason was unseated by the blind yearning of the fresh to exist and move, at all hazards to move, to continue to move, for movement was the expression of its existence. [3, p. 183]

Never, in all his fighting, had this thing happened. [3, p. 184]