In summary, there are many things a teachers can do to make their classroom a place where children from all cultural and class backgrounds can succeed in learning to read. Chapter 4 has outlined many methods that can be used with specific cultural groups, which can be used by teachers to create equity in the classroom. In order to have fair treatment, it does not work to treat all children the same. Teachers must be aware of the culture of their students, and be aware of teaching methods that work for those specific cultures, in order to create an equitable environment in which all children can learn.
Barone, D. (2003). Second grade is important: Literacy instruction and learning of young children in a high-poverty school. Journal of Literacy Research, 35, 965- 1017.
Beeman, M., and Carlisle, J. (2000). The effects of language of instruction on the reading and writing achievement of first grade Hispanic children. Scientific Studies of Reading, 4, 331-353.
Charity, A., Scarborough, H., and Griffin, D. (2004). Familiarity with school English in African American children and its relation to early reading achievement. Child Development, 75, 1340-1356
Chiappe, P., Siegel, L., and Wade-Woolley, L. (2002). Linguistic diversity and the development of reading skills: A longitudinal study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 6, 369-400.
Craig, H., Connor, M., and Washington, J. (2003). Early positive predictors of later reading comprehension for African American students: A preliminary investigation. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 31-43.
De la Colina, M., Parker, R., Hasbrouck, and Lara-Alecio, R. (2001). Intensive intervention in reading fluency for at-risk beginning Spanish readers. Bilingual Research Journal, 25,503-538.
Delpit, L. (1995). Other people’s children: Cultural conflict in the classroom. New York; New Press.
Denton, C., Anthony, J., Parker, R., and Hasbrouk, J. (2004). Effects of two tutoring programs on the English reading development of Spanish-English bilingual students. The Elementary School Journal, 104, 289-305.
Durkin, D. (1984). Poor black children who are successful readers: An investigation. Urban Education, 19, 53-76.
Elhoweris, H., Mutua, K., Alsheikh, N., and Holloway, P. (2005). Effect of children’s ethnicity on teachers’ referral and recommendation decisions in gifted and talented programs. Remedial and Special Education, 26, 25-31.
Fry, M. and Johnson, C. (1973). Oral language production and reading achievement among selected students. Journal of American Indian Education, 13, 22-27.
Gilliam, B., Gerla, J., and Wright, G. (2004). Providing minority parents with relevant literacy activities for their children. Reading Improvement, 41, 226-234.
Grice, M., and Vaughn, C. (1992). Third graders respond to literature for and about Afro- Americans. The Urban Review, 24, 149-164.
Gunn, B., Smolkowski, K., Biglan, A., Black, C., and Blair, J. (2005). Fostering the development of reading skill through supplemental instruction: Results for Hispanic and non-Hispanic students. Journal of Special Education, 39, 66-85.
Harris, V. (2002). Multicultural Literature. In B. Guzzetti (Ed.) Literacy in Amercia: An encyclopedia of history, theory and practice (Vol.1, pp. 368-373). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Hiebert, E. and Adler, M. (2002). Critique of the national reading panel report. In B. Guzzetti (Ed.) Literacy in Amercia: An encyclopedia of history, theory and practice (Vol.1, pp. 118-120). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Hosp, J, and Reschly, D. (2004). Disproportionate representation of minority students in special education: Academic, demographic and economic predictors. Exceptional Children, 70, 185-199.
Klug, B., and Whitfield, P. (2003). Widening the circle: Culturally relevant pedagogy for American Indian children. New York. Routledge Falmer.
Kondo-Brown, K. (2002) Heritage-Language Development. In B. Guzzetti (Ed.) Literacy in Amercia: An encyclopedia of history, theory and practice (Vol.1, pp. 219-222). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Lane, K., Menzies, H., Munton, S., Von Duering, R., and English, G. (2005). The effects of a supplemental early literacy program fro a student at risk: A case study.
Preventing School Failure, 50, 21-28.
LeMoine, N. (2002). Ebonics. In B. Guzzetti (Ed.) Literacy in America: An encyclopedia of history, theory and practice (Vol.1, pp. 167-168). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Love, A., and Kruger, A. (2005). Teachers beliefs and student achievement in urban schools serving African American students. Journal of Educational Research, 99, 87-98.
McBride-Chang, C., and Ho, C. (2005). Predictors of beginning reading in Chinese and English: A 2-year longitudinal study of Chinese kindergarteners. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9, 117-144.
Mohr, K. (2003). Children’s choices: A comparison of book preferences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic first-graders. Reading Psychology, 24, 163-176.
Monaghan, E., Hartman, D., and Monaghan, C. (2002). History of Reading Instruction. In Guzzetti (Ed.) Literacy in Amercia: An encyclopedia of history, theory and practice (Vol.1, pp. 224-230). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Morrow, L, Holt, T., and Sass, A. (2002). Phonics instruction. In B. Guzzetti (Ed.) Literacy in Amercia: An encyclopedia of history, theory and practice (Vol.2, pp. 428-431). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Murray, B., Stahl, S., and Ivey, M. (1993). Developing phonological awareness through alphabet books. Paper Presented at the annual meeting of the National Reading Conference, Charleston, SC.
Payne, R. (1996). A framework for understanding poverty. Highlands, TX. Aha! Process.
Pollard-Durodola, S., Cedillo, G., and Denton, C. (2004). Linguistic units and instructional strategies that facilitate word recognition for Latino kindergareners learning to read in Spanish. Bilingual Research Journal, 28, 319-354.
Reyhner, J. (1986). Native Americans in basal reading textbooks: Are there enough? Journal of American Indian Education, 26, 14-22.
Riccio, C., Amado, A., Jiminez, S., Hasbrouk, J., Imhoff, B., and Denton, C. (2001). Cross-linguistic transfer of phonological processing: Development of a measure of phonological processing in Spanish. Bilinglual Research Journal, 25, 583-603.
Rickford, A. (2001). The effect of cultural congruence and higher order questioning on the reading enjoyment and comprehension of ethnic minority students. Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk, 6, 357-387.
Ruan, J. (2003). Toward a culture-sensitive pedagogy: Emergent literacy learning in Chinese-English bilinguals in America. Language Culture and Curriculum, 16, 39-47.
Shanahan, T. (2002). National Reading Panel. In B. Guzzetti (Ed.) Literacy in Amercia: An encyclopedia of history, theory and practice (Vol.2, pp. 401-404). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Spring, J. (2005). The American school 1642-2004. New York. McGraw-Hill
Stage, S., Sheppard, J., Davidson, M., and Browning, M. (2001). Prediction of first- graders’ growth in oral reading fluency using kindergarten letter fluency. Journal of School Psychology, 39, 225-237.
Steffensen, M., Goetz, E., and Cheng, X. (1999). The images and emotions of bilingual Chinese readers: A dual coding analysis. Reading Psychology, 20, 301-324.
Tatum, B. (1997). “Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?”: And other conversations about race. New York. Basic Books.
Taylor, G. (1997). Multicultural literature preferences of low ability African American and Hispanic American fifth graders. Reading Improvement, 34, 37-48.
Trousdale, A., and Everett, J. (1994). Me and bad Harry: Three African-American children’s response to fiction. Children’s Literature in Education, 25, 1-15.
Valenzuela, A. (1999). Subtractive schooling: U.S.-Mexican youth and the politics of caring. New York. State University of New York Press.
Willis, A. (2002). Diversity. In B. Guzzetti (Ed.) Literacy in Amercia: An encyclopedia of history, theory and practice (Vol.1, pp. 150-153). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC- CLIO.
Wilson-Jones, L. (2003). Factors that promote and inhibit the acacemic achievement of rural elementary African American males ina a mississippi school: A Qualitative study. Paper Presented at the annual meeting of the Mid-South Edcuational Research Association, Biloxi, MS.
Wiencek, B., Cipielewski, J., Vazzano, J., and Sturken, M. (1998). Portraits of the literacy practices in two kindergarten classrooms: What’s going on. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Reading Conference, Austin, TX.
Wikipedia. (2006, July 15). Indian boarding school. Retrieved August 13, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Boarding_School