What does transverse myelitis look like on an MRI?
The typical MRI appearance in transverse myelitis is a central T2 hyperintense spinal cord lesion extending over more than two segments, involving more than two- thirds of the cross sectional area of the cord (11–14).
How is transverse myelitis detected?
In addition to the clinical evaluation, two common tests following the onset of suspicious symptoms are used as a first step to diagnose TM: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord: The most reliable neuroimaging technique to evaluate the structure of the spinal cord is the MRI.
Is transverse myelitis LMN or UMN?
Neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), a lower motor neuron (LMN) lesion, presents a flaccid monoplegia of the upper extremity in children. Transverse myelitis (TM) may present with either an LMN or an upper motor neuron (UMN) injury, depending on areas affected on the cord. Both entities are inflammatory and autoimmune in nature.
Does transverse myelitis show in blood test?
People with a positive antibody test are at increased risk of experiencing multiple attacks of transverse myelitis and require treatment to prevent future attacks. Other blood tests can identify infections that may contribute to transverse myelitis, or rule out other causes of symptoms.
Does transverse myelitis cause lesions?
Transverse myelitis can appear as the first symptom in conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO). A person with transverse myelitis who also has an abnormal brain MRI with more than two lesions has an increased chance (as high as 90 percent) of going on to develop MS.
What are signs and symptoms of transverse myelitis?
Typical signs and symptoms include:
- Pain. Transverse myelitis pain may begin suddenly in your lower back.
- Abnormal sensations. Some people with transverse myelitis report sensations of numbness, tingling, coldness or burning.
- Weakness in your arms or legs.
- Bladder and bowel problems.
Where is the lesion in transverse myelitis?
Symptoms may be different on each side of the body. Vertically, the lesion spans no more than three vertebrae. Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis: The lesion in this type extends vertically across more than three vertebrae. Patients often have at least partial paralysis of their legs, or their legs and arms.
What is sensory level in transverse myelitis?
The degree and type of sensory loss will depend upon the extent of the involvement of the various sensory tracts, but there is often a “sensory level” at the spinal ganglion of the segmental spinal nerve, below which sensation to pain or light touch is impaired.
Is transverse myelitis A demyelinating disease?
This article is an update on Transverse Myelitis (TM) based on our experience at the Johns Hopkins Transverse Myelitis Center (JHTMC). TM is a monophasic monofocal demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system and can be classified as idiopathic or disease associated.