What is testicular differentiation?
Testicular tissue differentiation may be due to the translocation of SRY to the X chromosome or an autosome. In the absence of SRY, overexpression of other pro-testis genes, e.g. SOX family genes, or failure of pro-ovarian/anti-testis genes, such as WNT4 and RSPO1, may underlie the development of testicular tissue.
What causes Ovotestis?
This disorder can be caused by genetic abnormalities, abnormal testicular development or abnormal testosterone production. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis is the diagnosis given when individuals have a well-developed gonad (ovary or testis) on one side and an underdeveloped (streak) gonad on the other side.
Is testicular torsion a form of cancer?
Malignancy. Testicular torsion is not associated with testicular cancer. However, children with a history of undescended testes who have undergone orchiopexy after the age or 11 years have an increased risk of testicular cancer.
How rare is true gonadal intersex?
True hermaphroditism represents 5% of all sex disorder differentiations. Estimated frequency of ovotestes is one in 83,000 births (0.0012%). The exact number of confirmed cases is uncertain, but by 1991 approximately 500 cases had been confirmed. It has also been estimated that more than 525 have been documented.
When do gonads differentiate?
By the eighth week of gestation, Leydig cells of the testes begin to produce testosterone and the testes can influence sexual differentiation of the genital ducts and external genitalia. Formation of the external genitalia is completed by the 12th week.
How do you get Spermatocele?
The cause of spermatoceles is unknown. Spermatoceles might result from a blockage in one of the multiple tubes within the epididymis that transport and store sperm from the testicle.
Are people with ovotestis male or female?
Sexual Development and Identity Most patients have an ovotestis with either an ovary or a testis on the opposite side; a gonad in the scrotum is usually a testis but may be an ovotestis. The genitalia are usually ambiguous, but they may appear completely masculine or feminine.
What causes DSD?
This happens because of a difference with your genes or how you respond to the sex hormones in your body, or both. It can be inherited, but there is often no clear reason why it happens. The most common times to find out that a person has a DSD are around the time of their birth or when they’re a teenager.
Is testicular CDUs an effective and non-invasive tool for diagnosis of varicocele?
The significant decrease in capsular and intratesticular RI along with improvement in sperm parameters indicated that testicular CDUS is an effective and non-invasive tool for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with varicocele. As mentioned above, varicocele is a common urologic problem in juveniles which could negatively affect their fertility.
How effective is intra-testicular lidocaine for percutaneous testicular biopsy?
Results: Intra-testicular lidocaine, (without need of a cord block or any sedation) was used on a total of 45 consecutive patients having percutaneous testicular biopsies. Procedure time was short (averages less than 5 minutes) and anaesthesia was profound.
Does varicocele affect testis microvascular characteristics in infertile men?
Different lines of evidence have evaluated microvascular characteristics of testis in infertile men with varicocele and showed increased capsular and intratesticular RI among them (20, 21) but very few studies have evaluated the effects of varicocelectomy on these parameters.
How accurate is testicular volume measurement by ultrasonography?
Our study also confirmed that the testicular volume measured by ultrasonography could reflect the biological change of sex hormones, which in turn confirmed the accuracy of ultrasonography. Due to the regulation of testicular development, there is a significant inflection point on the curve of testicular volume with age.