What is the role of housekeeping genes?
Housekeeping genes are involved in basic cell maintenance and, therefore, are expected to maintain constant expression levels in all cells and conditions. Identification of these genes facilitates exposure of the underlying cellular infrastructure and increases understanding of various structural genomic features.
Why is hprt1 a housekeeping gene?
Due to the constant requirement for GTP, as both a nucleotide for DNA synthesis and as an energy moleule throughout the cell, HPRT is reliably produced as a housekeeping gene and is found in all somatic tissue in low levels.
What are some examples of housekeeping genes?
The proteins they code are generally involved in the basic functions necessary for the sustenance or maintenance of the cell. Examples of housekeeping genes include actin, GAPDH and ubiquitin.
Are housekeeping genes always expressed?
Background. Control genes, which are often referred to as housekeeping genes, are frequently used to normalise mRNA levels between different samples. However, the expression level of these genes may vary among tissues or cells and may change under certain circumstances.
What is B2M blood test?
This beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) test is used as a tumor marker for some people with blood cell cancers. It is not diagnostic for a specific disease, but it has been associated with the amount of cancer present (tumor burden) and can give a healthcare practitioner additional information about someone’s likely prognosis.
Is B2M a housekeeping gene?
Several genes have been used as housekeeping genes, including β2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-actin (ACTB), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) and ribosomal RNA (18 s and 28 s rRNA) [18,21].
What types of genes are constitutively expressed?
A constitutive gene is a gene that is transcribed continually as opposed to a facultative gene, which is only transcribed when needed. A housekeeping gene is a gene that is required to maintain basic cellular function and so is typically expressed in all cell types of an organism.
What is a high level of B2M?
People with cancers of the bone marrow and blood often have high levels of B2M in their blood or urine. These cancers include multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and leukemia. High levels of B2M in cerebrospinal fluid can mean that cancer has spread to the brain and/or spinal cord.
What is the B2M endogenous control?
Learn more The Applied Biosystems® Human B2M (beta-2-microglobulin) Endogenous Control (VIC® ⁄ TAMRA Probe, Primer Limited) is intended as an endogenous control. It allows relative gene expression quantification in cDNA samples when used with other TaqMan® gene expression assays.
What is the B2M gene?
B2M (Beta-2-Microglobulin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with B2M include Immunodeficiency 43 and Amyloidosis, Familial Visceral . Among its related pathways are Interferon gamma signaling and Cytokine Signaling in Immune system . Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding .
Is B2M expression associated with survival in glioma patients?
B2M expression is associated with poor survival in glioma patients. Kaplan–Meier analysis of overall survival (OS), disease specific survival (DSS), and progression-free interval (PFI) based on B2M expression were performed in LGGs ( A) and pan-gliomas ( B) from TCGA.
What is the role of B2M in the pathophysiology of immune cell activation?
In B2M related biological processes, GSEA and GSVA showed that B2M was involved in immune-related pathways, such as myeloid dendritic cell activation, T cell mediated cytotoxicity, and macrophage activation in GO analysis. While in KEGG analysis, B2M was associated with natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, and apoptosis.