Who invented organum music?
The history of organum would not be complete without two of its greatest innovators, Léonin and Pérotin. These two men were “the first international composers of polyphonic music”. The innovations of Léonin and Pérotin mark the development of the rhythmic modes.
What period of music is organum?
Medieval polyphonic music
Organum is a genre of Medieval polyphonic music (music with two or more simultaneous, different voice parts) that reached the peak of its sophistication during the late 1100s-early 1200s in France.
What is organum and where did it originate?
organum, plural Organa, originally, any musical instrument (later in particular an organ); the term attained its lasting sense, however, during the Middle Ages in reference to a polyphonic (many-voiced) setting, in certain specific styles, of Gregorian chant.
What was Léonin known for?
Leonin, sometimes referred to as ‘Leoninus,’ is thought to have lived from 1150-1201. He is known for being the first composer of polyphonic music that we can identify by name. Leonin’s music was generally in two vocal parts.
Who composed organa?
Pérotin composed organa, the earliest type of polyphonic music; previous European music, such as Gregorian and other types of chant, had been monophonic. Prior to Perotin, organum generally consisted of two voices: organum duplum.
When did monophony appear and develop in history?
It arose about 1600, particularly in Italy, as a response to the contrapuntal style (based on the combination of simultaneous melodic lines) of 16th-century vocal genres such as the madrigal and motet.
Why was organum created?
Sometime during the ninth century, music theorists in the Church began experimenting with the idea of singing two melodic lines simultaneously at parallel intervals, usually at the fourth, fifth, or octave. The resulting hollow-sounding music was called organum and very slowly developed over the next hundred years.
How did Leonin influence music?
By writing many high quality polyphonic compositions Leonin and Perotin subsequently encouraged polyphonic composition. Polyphony would ultimately lead to the creation of harmony which is also in wide use today. Leonin and Perotin elevated musical art forms in their time.
What music did Leonin compose?
According to Anonymous IV, “Magister Leoninus (Léonin) was the finest composer of organum; he wrote the great book (Magnus Liber) for the gradual and antiphoner for the sacred service.” All of the Magnus Liber is for two voices, although little is known about actual performance practice: the two voices were not …
What is organum in music?
In its earliest written form, found in the treatise Musica enchiriadis ( c. 900; “Musical Handbook”), organum consisted of two melodic lines moving simultaneously note against note. Sometimes a second, or organal, voice doubled the chant, or principal voice, a fourth or a fifth below (as G or F below c, etc.).
How was early organum made?
Early organum of this sort (9th–11th century) was, it seems, spontaneously produced by specially trained singers before being committed to manuscript. In more elaborate forms of organum, a freely composed melody was sung note against note above the plainchant.
How many types of organum are used in jubilemus?
The two types of organum are used in Jubilemus, exultemus. Music: NAWM 16 Manuscripts for organum use score notation (one part above the other, with notes that sound together aligned vertically), but do not indicate rhythm or duration. II.
What does parallel organum mean in music?
Parallel organum. In parallel organum, an added voice (organal voice) appears below a chant melody (principal voice), moving in parallel fifths or fourths and making adjustments to avoid the tritone. Either or both voices may be doubled at the octave.