Applications in the research paper are quite rare, so finding a design sample can be difficult. Moreover, the requirements are no different from the requirements for the design of applications in other scientific papers.
What is placed in the annex to the research paper
Before considering the design of applications in the research paper, you need to understand what can fit in them. This directly depends on the content of the research paper.
Research papers are of two types:
Productive essays suggest that the author makes a critical reflection or comparison of several positions, points of view of different scientists or schools, directions, and draws his own conclusions. Alternatively, a critical analysis of one source of information may be carried out. Reproductive essays are a summary (brief retelling) of the primary source, which can be a book, article, study.
The easiest way is with applications in reproductive research papers: if there were important applications in the original source, they can also be placed in the research paper.
For example, a research paper is written on the basis of an article on art history, as illustrations of which reproductions of paintings are given – they can also be placed in the research paper’s appendices.
In productive research papers, borrowing applications from sources can be performed, as well as adding own applications.
Let us give an example of the logic of adding an application: one scientific trend claims that inflation is connected with the money supply, the second – that it is mainly influenced by other factors. The author of the essay gives both points of view, and then takes real statistics for verification, taking statistics figures (voluminous tables) into the application.
The general principle of how to write the application correctly in the research paper: large (more than 1/3 – 1/2 sheets) pictures, tables, intermediate calculations and documents of an auxiliary character are taken out of the text from the application.
How to draw up applications in the research paper
Registration of applications to scientific documents – including research papers – is regulated by certain standards. The main provisions of this standard are:
- In most cases, the appendices form a single whole with the main text, acting as a continuation (after the list of references). Page numbering is not interrupted.
- All applications must be referenced in the text. If the application is really needed, there are no problems with this. If the link is not inserted anywhere, it is better to simply remove such an unnecessary application.
- The order of placement of applications is determined by the order of their first mention in the text.
- Each application is printed from its page (even if there is a lot of space left on the last sheet).
- In the upper line of the first sheet in the center it says: “ANNEX” and its designation, for example, “ANNEX A”. On the next line (also in the center), a heading is placed that reflects the contents of the application.
- For designation of applications use letters, but not numbers. The first application is designated A, the second B, etc. If the application is only one, it still has its own designation (APPENDIX A).
- Appendices are indicated in the table of contents (contents) of the document.
Design individual elements of applications
Applications can be “heterogeneous” – that is, within the framework of one application, both text and tables with illustrations and formulas can be used. In this case, the inserted objects should be executed according to the rules similar to their design within the main text:
- After the illustration, the name and explanation are written. The peculiarity is that the numbering includes the designation of the application and the number of the figure within this application: “Figure D.2 – Worm robot”. The caption text is placed in the middle of the line.
- Application tables are also indicated in a double way (application number, then dot, table number), but the signature is placed not after the table, but before it: “Table A.1 – Monthly exchange rate of the dollar against the euro in 2010-2018.”
- Formulas are written in the middle of the line, and their numbers (also double) are right-aligned and are framed by parentheses. No special words (formula, equation) are used in this case: (B.4).
All inserted objects must be referenced in the text. This requirement is also not application specific.
How to technically design applications in a research paper
After completing the list of references, you need to insert a page break (this is better than using a lot of jumps to a new line using the Enter key, because after making the changes the applications will not slip), set the center alignment, the font format is all uppercase, and type “APPENDIX A “. After pressing Enter, type the title of the application, and then its text.
Difficulties arise with applications that the author of the essay does not write himself, but takes from some source. Materials may be issued on paper. To design an application in a research paper, you can do the following:
- If applications are textual (numerical, tabular) in nature, they can be re-enumerated.
- If it is precisely the images (drawings, diagrams, financial statements with signature and seal) that are valuable, you can scan them and paste them after the heading as a picture.
- If the image quality is not very good and when scanning and printing deteriorates to unreadable, or the document has a larger format (A3, A2 …) than the available scanner can handle, you can directly sign the title and heading in black letters in black letters on the document, and below – page number. In this case, you will have to take care of the correct inclusion of such an application in the table of contents of the research paper.
Requirements for the font (headset and size), as well as paragraph parameters, are more loyal for the application than for the main document.