An abstract is not considered such a large-scale work as a term paper or a diploma. Requirements for an abstract are softer, protect it without a commission. But the essay must be properly executed so that the teacher accepts it and puts a decent mark.
How to write an abstract
The main parts that should be part of the abstract:
- Title page.
- Content in which you indicate all sections and subsections of the abstract.
- Start with the introduction (determine the choice of topic, the relevance of the topic, the purpose of the work).
- Further, the main part (here you are relying on authoritative sources, analyze the topic, state your point of view).
- Finish with conclusions (conclusions or conclusions summarize all of the above). Provide a list of sources used (list the literature, sites, etc. The more, the better, but for a standard essay, 5 or more sources are enough).
In terms of volume, the introduction should consist of 1-2 pages, the main part is 12-15, the conclusions are 1-2. You can include tables and diagrams, diagrams, etc. in the abstract. Sometimes large volumes of essay are required of students, but this is a teacher’s whim, unconditioned by state standards. In order for the work to be properly built, adhere to the following procedure. This will facilitate writing and design. First you decide on a topic, after which you study literature, choosing the most interesting thoughts and information. Carry out an analysis, and then present the information logically and clearly.
The correct design of the title page of the abstract in 2019
The title page is the first thing a person who picks up an abstract sees it. Errors in the design of the title page are striking in the first place. The title page should contain the information necessary for searching and processing the document.
The list of details that are written on the title page of the abstract is slightly reduced in comparison with the full list. It is enough to indicate:
- The name of the parent organization in relation to the one on the basis of which this essay is performed.
For most institutions of secondary vocational education, this is the Ministry of Education, for most higher education institutions – the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. For sectoral universities, a higher organization may be another ministry – this must be clarified before completing the essay. A sample can be any intra-university document (methodological manual, order, etc.), on which this attribute is also indicated.
- The name of the organization in which the abstract is written. A sample design of this name is available for students on the university website or on a tablet in front of the university entrance.
On the title page, the full name must be indicated, in addition, an abbreviated name can be indicated.
- Type of document (Abstract).
- Theme of the abstract. How to title the abstract is indicated in the assignment issued by the teacher?
- The discipline within which the abstract is written.
- Information about the contractor (s) and the work manager.
- City and year of writing the abstract.
Proper presentation of the content of the abstract
The second page (after the title page) at registration of the essay is the content. Sometimes it is called a “table of contents”. There are requirements for what information should be indicated:
- Names of sections and their parts available in the abstract — having the name of subsections and paragraphs. Abstracts usually use one-level or two-level division (two sections, two subsections), the selection of the third level is impractical due to the small amount of work.
- List of sources used.
- Names of applications.
The content (if there are no applications in the abstract) looks something like this:
- Title of the first chapter
1.1. First paragraph
1.2. Second paragraph
- The second chapter
2.1. First paragraph
2.2. Second paragraph
On the sheet with the contents not only the names are indicated, but also the page numbers on which the corresponding structural elements begin. The requirements for how this abstract should look like differ in different institutions: somewhere they require the use of a placeholder (dots or lines) between the name of the section and the page number, somewhere they forbid it to be done.
To correctly draw up an abstract, it is best to take a sample prepared specifically for your university.
Design of the main parts of the abstract
The content is followed by an introduction in which the student should describe the goals and objectives of his research in such a way as to interest the reader. The volume of the introduction is from 1 to 3 sheets.
In the main part of the abstract, the student should describe the analysis of sources on a given topic, research methods and its results. It is not necessary to completely rewrite the sources, it is important that the text is unique, and there are no grammatical errors in it. All chapters should be approximately the same in volume.
At the end of the study, a brief conclusion should be made. In conclusion, the student’s task is to express precisely his opinion on the solution of the task. He must draw this conclusion after studying the publications of other authors. The volume of the conclusion should be slightly larger than the volume of introduction.
How to draw up abstract text
The design of the entire text has the same requirements:
- To correctly print the abstract, you need to use A4 white paper. Printing is done on one side.
- The text is executed in a single font. It is allowed to use other fonts only to highlight significant elements, but this is undesirable. Most often, an abstract is drawn up in Times New Roman font.
- The font size in the abstract should be at least 12 pt., in most cases 14 pt. is used.
- The requirements of the university for the design of the abstract contain the parameters of the paragraphs. A sample of such requirements: one and a half line spacing, indentation of the first line 1.25 cm, alignment in width, there are no indents on the right and left, the interval before and after the paragraph is zero. The correct paragraph indentation in the abstract is enough to configure once and use throughout the text.
- It is forbidden to highlight bold headings (using bold in research reports is generally prohibited). The headings of the structural elements – introduction, conclusion, list of used sources and chapters – can be printed in capital letters. The headings of the subsections begin with an uppercase letter, followed by lowercase letters (as in the usual sentence). After the number of the section or subsection, as well as at the end of the heading, a dot is not put. The use of dots is permissible only if the name consists of two sentences.
- Mandatory pagination in the abstract. The title page is considered the first, but the number is not put on it.
An example of the design of the list of references in the abstract
The list of references (or the “list of sources used”) is the most strictly regulated element of the essay. Each source should be described according to a specific template, which is determined by the type of this source (the requirements for the design of printed books, articles in periodicals, and electronic sources differ). These requirements should allow unambiguous identification of the source and correspond to reality: you cannot write the year of publication 2016 for a book published in 1996.
All sources indicated in the bibliographic list should be referenced in the text of the work. Links can be made either in square brackets with the number of the source and page, or footnotes.
Tips for writing an abstract in Word
Text editors – such as Microsoft Word and similar office applications – allow you to beautifully draw up an abstract using special tools. Despite their convenience and ease of use, it’s almost impossible to download a properly formatted essay: students still do everything manually, which leads to numerous errors.
If a typewriter had to press the space bar a certain number of times to make a “red line,” now only people who do not know how to use a computer do this. The correct indentation in Word for the abstract can be set in the “Paragraph” dialog box.
Substantially facilitated and design content. If the headings in the text are executed in the appropriate style (heading of the first or second level), then just insert a special object – an automatically collected table of contents. Word will determine the page numbers of the relevant sections and update them when changes are made (if you add or reduce one of the sections).
Automation has affected both the formatting of lists (bulleted and numbered), and the implementation of links and footnotes. All these tools allow you to automate the update as much as possible when making changes, which reduces the likelihood of making a mistake: for example, in a numbered list, numbers are guaranteed to go in order, without omissions and duplications; an automatically installed link will always lead to the desired source in the list of references.