Format of references and footnotes in term paper

Term paper, like the abstract, necessarily involves the use of works of reputable scientists – textbooks, monographs, articles. In light of this, it seems logical to make references and footnotes in term paper.

Ways of links in term paper

There are two approaches to how to link in a term paper:

  1. Footnotes in the course can be made out in square brackets.
  2. You can use footnotes, an example of which can be found in any textbook.

The way in which footnotes in the course are drawn up is determined by the department: both of the described variants of making footnotes are permissible.

Footnotes in square brackets do not cause questions at registration: in square brackets after the quotation (direct or indirect) the source number from the list of references is simply indicated.

Example 1

If you need to issue a footnote to the site, nothing more is required, if you need to issue a footnote to an article from a magazine or a book, then after the source number indicates the page from which the quotation is taken: [5, c. 117].

Somewhat more difficult to figure out how to put page references in the term paper.

Footnote rules in term paper

The design of references in term paper is from a technical point of view subject to the following requirements:

  • The font with which you will draw footnotes coincides with the font of the main text.
  • Size, which should be printed footnotes in the course: 2-4 points less than the main text, that is, the standard size – 10-12 pt.
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Correctly make footnotes in the term paper on the following plan:

  • Footnote sequence number (can be numbered or restarted on each page).
  • Information about the source.
  • Page number in the source.

Allowed to draw up literature in footnotes inside the text, under the word (bottom of the page) or behind the text (endnotes). Footnotes on the source in term paper are usually made at the bottom of the page.

How to make footnotes

The type of source used determines how to make footnotes to it in the term paper.

Example 2

Example: for the textbook, the author, title, publisher, and city of publication are indicated, and such information cannot be specified for the site.

Usually the first question is how to put footnotes on textbooks, manuals and monographs in term paper.

Example 3

Example: 1 O. Summers. Economic history of the European Union: studies. for universities. – M .: Education, 2016. – p. 307.

Example 4

A shorter description of the source in the footnote is also acceptable. For example, it might look like this: 1 O. Summers. Economic history of the European Union. M., 2016. P. 307.

After the source was mentioned in the footnote, it is possible to make footnotes to it in the term paper even more briefly.

Example 5

At the location of mentions in a row, the text of the second footnote is replaced by the words “Ibid.”

Using the Internet requires making footnotes to electronic resources.

How to make footnotes in term paper

Difficulties can also cause the question of how to put links in the term paper when typing text with footnotes in MS Word. An example of a common mistake: a student manually puts the source numbers in square brackets throughout the text. Then it is enough to make minimal changes in the list of references (add or remove one source) – and all the footnotes no longer correspond to reality.

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Software developers have thought out how to conveniently put footnotes in term paper. Examples of useful tools:

  • Tab “Links”, “Insert endnote” – for footnotes placed at the bottom of the page.
  • Tab “Links”, block “Links and references” – for in-text links.
  • Tab “Links”, “Cross-reference” – for links in square brackets to the source number from the bibliographic list.